w2100 20161030 M31 A7Ra ISO3200 11x30s


The Andromeda Galaxy, also known as Messier 31, M31, or NGC 224, is a spiral galaxy approximately 780 kiloparsecs (2.5 million light-years) from Earth. It is the nearest major galaxy to the Milky Way and was often referred to as the Great Andromeda Nebula in older texts. It received its name from the area of the sky in which it appears, the constellation of Andromeda, which was named after the mythological princess Andromeda.

Andromeda is approximately 220,000 light years across, and it is the largest galaxy of the Local Group, which also contains the Milky Way, the Triangulum Galaxy, and other smaller galaxies. Despite earlier findings that suggested that the Milky Way contains more dark matter and could be the largest in the grouping, the 2006 observations by the Spitzer Space Telescope revealed that Andromeda contains one trillion (1012) stars: at least twice the number of stars in the Milky Way, which is estimated to be 200–400 billion. The mass of the Andromeda Galaxy is estimated to be 1.5×1012 solar masses, while the Milky Way is estimated to be 8.5×1011 solar masses.

ObjectM31 or NGC 224 - Andromeda Galaxy
with M32 and M110 Galaxy involved
Constellation: Andromeda
Position: RA 0h 42m 44,31s DEC +41° 16′ 09,4″
Apparent Size: 186 × 62 arcmin
Apparent Magnitude: +3.5
Distance (average) 2.54 Mly
Photo Datas 
Date 30.10.2016, 21:10 UTC
Location Knottenried/Oberallgäu, 1002m ASL
GPS: 47°36’13“ N, 10°11’24“ E
Sky darkness SQM-L Zenit 20.95mag/sqrsec, Object 20.85mag/sqrsec
Ground Temp./Air Pressure -2.0°C /1035mbar
Thermal sky temp./weather  -52.1°C Zenit
Seeing  6/10
Telescope Canon f/2.8 300mm L IS USM I
Camera Sony A7Ra mod @ T sensor=6.5°C
Expose frames ISO 3200, RAW 11x30s, 5 darks
Total expose
5 min 30s
Filter no
Mount HPS 10Micron GM 3000
Guiding Cam no
Software DSS 3.3.4, Photoshop CC

C 2016 Peter Cerveny